How to Purify Water with Natural Methods
Author: Kyt Lyn Walken
“Nothing is softer or more flexible than water, yet nothing can resist it.” — Lao Tzu
We often underestimate the importance of having good water supplies during all our activities, especially if we find ourselves in an emergency situation.
Any hazard, in fact, could be easily connected to a shortage of supplies. Water, first!
Having good stocks of water is pretty mandatory, specifically if our intention is to spend several days in the Great Outdoors. We should be able to rely only on:
- The provisions we have
- Purification systems
- Our expertise as survivalists
Even when the weather is likely to be not so sunny, our body needs a supply of fluids adequate to the efforts we are making or to what we are going to face.
Therefore, getting more than one bottle (or Camelback) is not just a matter of common sense, but also of prudence.
The absence of springs, mountain huts, and so on can make us bitterly regret having underestimated our itinerary. Consequently, drawing water from unsafe sources could become fatal mistake that we must necessarily avoid.
If we do not have any water filtration and purification systems available (although there are several on the market, and many very good ones!), we can however build one by ourselves using ... a half-liter plastic bottle and a piece of rope (or twine, or even .. a shoelace!)
In this article we will lift the lid on how to do that, resorting to some basic items we might have inside our backpacks.
Why Purify Water?
“We forget that the water cycle and the life cycle are one.” — Jacques Yves Cousteau
Getting water from any stream without processing it is a huge mistake we need to avoid. Even if we find ourselves hiking at some noticeable altitudes (13,123 feet, 4000 meters), we cannot just grab our canteen and start to refill it at the first high mountain creek we run into. It doesn't work that way.
Without any safety procedures, a simple act like this can contain all the ingredients for disaster.
Let me tell you about a fact I personally assisted to several years ago: I was hiking in the Dolomites, at 6,560 feet. On my way up to a bivouac, I ran into a group of ten people led by a guide. The trail flanked a tiny creek. The guide invited his group to refill their canteen.
I observed the scene in silence, and moved on. While I was 320 feet away, I noticed the carcass of an ibex, right in the middle of the stream. The carelessness of that guide might be the cause of some serious diseases of the participants he was supposed to care of.
I have this episode stuck in my mind. The morale is very simple: you may never know what it is – or, - was! - in the water you are collecting.
Staying stick to the basic principle "better be safe than sorry" could actually save your life. And others' too! Or, at least, it could prevent yourself from getting some serious illness.
What's Inside Unfiltered Water
“Water is the driving force of all nature.” — Leonardo da Vinci
Bacteria happen to be everywhere, from water which flows on the surface then into groundwater. The presence of some bacteria can be harmful to our health, especially in subjects which are more at risk, like elderly people or if we are over fatigued.
Bacteria, along with parasites and viruses, can lead to some tragic consequences. Coliform bacteria, for example, is one of them. Escherichia Coli is part of this family.
This bacteria can cause nausea, diarrhea, cramps, vomiting, headaches, physical and mental fatigue, or fever. Ultimately, it may cause even death.
As a matter of fact, fecal matter also contains many pathogens, and bacteria too. So if think you can approach a mountain creek with no doubt at all... step back and reconsider.
Ungulates' urine, parts of carcasses, and whatsoever are, in fact, a real danger when you need to collect water.
Beside that, you can still make that water drinkable by resorting to some good, and reliable water filtration systems you may easily find in Outdoor stores.
Or you can use some water purification tablets. The market is full of them.
But... what if you don't have any?
You can still sort out the whole situation using some knowledge, essential handcraft, smartness and... common sense.
Not to mention that, even if your gear is far from being any cutting edge, you can still use employ a bunch of very basic items, like a plastic bottle, to create your own purification system.
Personally speaking, I learned this method – and put into practice – while attending the Conservation Ranger Course back to 2018, in order to become Antipoaching Ranger.
It was part of the Survival Program to volunteer as Ranger in the African Continent.
Let's discover more about that!
How to Pre-Filter & Purify Water
“The cure for anything is salt water: sweat, tears or the sea.” — Isak Dinesen
Before purifying water, you should pre-filter it, to get the large debris out of it first.
Note that any initial water filtering process must be followed by boiling (for at least fifteen minutes corresponding to every 500 ml of water), in order to eliminate most of the viruses, parasites and bacteria which are contained.
- About 16 oz plastic bottle – empty
- A cutting tool A shoe lace – or paracord – or a thin rope
- A gauze cut in pieces
In order to create an effective pre-filter, you need to cut the plastic bottle into two parts, pretty much in the center. The bottom part will act as a reservoir for the filtered water from the top part.
To make it effective, it is necessary to create different layers in it (one made of sand, one of small stones or gravel, and so on), and, if possible, alternate them with gauze, which will be able to retain impurities.
This is a similar idea of what it looks like. See the full video from Generation Genius.
Strictly avoid forming a layer of leaves! Leaves have tannin in them, and will make the water impure and potentially toxic.
Once you have finished composing the different layers, make two holes in your filter, passing the string through them, and hang the filter on a branch. Position the cistern below, so that it is not in the balance.
Pour the water you wish to purify into the filter through a plastic bag that you will throw in your garbage - nothing is left in Nature! - and wait patiently, drop by drop, for your water to be ready to be boiled!
How to Purify Water with Distillation System
By this method, you are able to get some fresh water out of a very easy process. All you need to do is to dig a hole right inside the ground.
Be careful to create a small hole – almost mug size – in the center, placing your canteen in it. Pay attention to leave a bigger bottom on the surface, and cover it with plastic. You can actually employ a plastic bag to do that.
Put a small rock right in the middle of the plastic drape, once you secured it all over the edges in order to prevent it from collapsing inside the hole you previously dug. Then, all you have to do is... to wait!
In fact, the distillation system works throughout evaporation and condensation. If you put some green plants inside the hole the spores will be also able to allow a better transpiration.
This process works even with salt water, ensuring a desalination of the water.
Again, this method is surely the best way to go when you find yourself in an emergency situation and you have the ideal conditions to make it work: staying overnight, wasteland, and so on.
How to purify water with charcoal
In some cases, the employment of activated charcoal happens to be the ideal water filter.
In fact, it is able to remove toxins from the water without compromising the benefits of the water herself in terms of salts and important minerals.
By collecting some charcoal from your campfire with a canteen, you can pour some greywater through it, and then proceed with boiling the water you got.
Ultimate news on natural filters Recent researches demonstrate that in Africa and Latin America some natural filters are employed in greywater filtration systems.
[...] whether fibers like coconut husks, maize, and seeds remove chemical toxins from water, and if they could filter polluted freshwater the same as greywater. [...] ". It has been proved that: "[...] natural fibrous components with the potential to purify greywater: activated charcoal powder, moringa oleifera seeds, and crushed corn cob. Charcoal powder has been used in greywater treatments before, and it can replace chlorine as a natural disinfectant; the seeds contain a protein with an antimicrobial effect in water filtration; and the corn has the ability to trap chemicals in its pores and soak in excess salts like calcium and magnesium [...]
(Source: Society for Science)